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"We are living in an era of growing uncertainty and insecurity that is challenging all our beliefs and assumptions. In these troubled times it is crucial that we acquire some understanding of just who we are as a species, why we exist and how best we may order our lives and societies within the universal scheme of things."
- Eugene D. A. Bell-Gam
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Science On Origin Part 1: The Universe
[abridged excerpts]
What Do We Mean By 'Science'?
[Science has been defined as] "the study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world and society, especially through observation and experiment".
The traditional standard for scientific method is Inductivism, an approach that requires three indispensable steps: observe, induce a hypothesis and confirm the hypothesis. This narrow and restrictive interpretation of what should pass for science has led to accusations that it is nothing more than an ideology based on unjustifiably exclusive dogma.
As philosopher of science Paul Feyerabend pointed out in 1975, accepting scientific ideas requires the same leap of faith needed to acknowledge unseen deities. For we can never be sure that we have taken all relevant material into consideration, and there is no certainty that a future occurrence or activity will always mimic its past nature.
Nevertheless scientists argue, with some justification, that scientific methodology provides the best explanations that can unify the disparate mounds of evidence we have accumulated about our world and the universe.
Astronomy / Cosmology
... Until the 16th century it was wrongly believed that the earth was the centre around which the known universe revolved. Religious scholars sponsored this erroneous belief to perpetuate their conviction that the earth and mankind were the centrepiece of God's creation.
The astronomers Copernicus (1473-1543), Kepler (1571-1630) and Galileo (1564-1642) demonstrated that, in fact, the earth revolved around the sun and that it was the sun that lay at the centre of our solar system. This proposition was so controversial and alarming that the Church rejected it. Strong theoretical support for these radical ideas was provided in 1687 by Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. But it was the emergence of Cosmology at the end of the 19th century that gave rise to the first, empirically testable theories on the universe's origin that did not involve a supernatural creator ...
... The inception of Cosmology can be traced to Albert Einstein's relativity theories. His theory of special relativity (1905) showed that energy and matter are different aspects of the same thing, and can be transformed into each other. His theory of general relativity (1917) leads to field equations that are inconsistent with religious teachings of a static universe that a creator finished once and for all in six days.
Between 1922 and 1924, Alexander Friedmann first proposed that the universe started from a tiny volume at some finite time in the past. This suggested that it was capable of expansion and was not static. Then in 1927 Georges Lemaître, a Belgian priest who was also a scientist, put forward the breath-taking theory that the universe was born from the inexplicable explosion of a single, minute, very hot, tightly compressed particle. Its explosion supposedly hurled matter and energy in all directions and kick-started space and time. ...
Big-Bang Theory
The explosion hypotheses have been condensed into The Big Bang Theory [20]. This is now the dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe. Latest versions of Big Bang state that the universe was created sometime between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago. Its founding 'seed' was made out of nothing and appeared out of nowhere. Still, the temperature inside was so high (more than a billion degrees Celsius) that nuclear reactions could take place that would result in the formation of hydrogen, helium and some lithium. Very rapid expansion followed, resulting in a cooling down that allowed the matter created to form galaxies over billions of years.
Our earth, according to Big Bang, appeared along with the other planets in our solar system around 5 billion years ago. The entire system (sun and planets) supposedly arose from a collapsing cloud of dust and gas, somewhere in one of the galaxies spawned by the earlier mysterious explosion.
The term 'Big Bang' is a sarcastic description coined by British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle in the 1940s when comparing it to his preferred Steady State Theory. [21] ...
Problems With Big-Bang
Big Bang is ... fraught with problems. Although it explains issues like the expansion of the universe and the abundance of certain gaseous elements in space, it probably will never be proven conclusively. Crucially, it offers no explanation as to the origin of the exploding primordial particle or what caused it to explode ...
Ironically, the strongest evidence in favour of Big Bang -- residual cosmic radiation -- is also an Achilles heel. Wherever this has been measured it has been found to be extremely uniform in all directions. The universe is composed of intermittent galaxies and voids that make it far from uniform ...
Other Missing Pieces
When astronomers in the 1930s ... attempted to calculate the mass of galaxies ... They came to the startling conclusion that as much as 90 percent of the universe must be composed of matter that could not be detected!
... In the 1970s, astronomers led by Vera Rubin of the US Carnegie Institution used updated technology to confirm this anomaly. The missing mass is known as 'dark matter'. Of course it may not be dark at all but merely transparent.
Recently the mystery has deepened. After calculating the mass of all the galaxies visible in the universe, astronomers have found that ... dark matter ... only amounts to about one-third of the critical density ...
Yet another unknown component makes up as much as two-thirds of the universe! This new mysterious factor ... has been labelled 'dark energy'.
Linked to the mysteries of missing dark matter and dark energy is the discovery of some galaxies that appear to have formed less than two billion years after the Big Bang. At that time in the evolution of the universe, gravity alone would not have provided sufficient 'clumping' power to form such structures. Cosmologists are therefore concluding that the early universe must already have had some structure or texture, and/or that dark matter and dark energy were already shaping the form of 'visible' matter with unseen hands.
Creation scientists have a simple explanation for the observed anomalies: they believe that dark matter and dark energy remain undetected because they do not exist. Galaxies, they say, are only expected to possess 100 times more mass than has been detected because of the erroneous assumption that the universe is billions rather than thousands of years old ...
Where Is It All Heading?
The amazing discoveries in recent decades are at once exciting and troubling. Scientists now agree that the ultimate fate of the universe hangs on its ability to counter the increasing force of expansion with its inward gravitational pull [23]. If the current furious expansion continues indefinitely the universe will eventually lose the battle and get pulled apart into a cold, desolate landscape of dying stars and black holes. If the expansion stops suddenly and the universe starts recoiling, it will shrink until galaxies start colliding and vanish ultimately into a gigantic black hole. But there is a third more appealing scenario: the universe may gradually slow down to a halt and end up in precise balance ...
... There is another matter of concern closer in time. Scientists calculate that in about 4-6 billion years the sun will burn up its nuclear hydrogen fuel supply and expand into a red giant. When this happens it will incinerate all solar planets, including earth.
In July 2001 astronomers observed a chilling rehearsal of what is to come. A NASA satellite detected CW Leonis, a distant star, in its death throes [24]. The star is located about 500 light years from earth in the constellation Leo. Intriguingly scientists have also detected huge concentrations of water vapour around CW Leonis. This raises the exciting possibility that bodies like our planets with enough water to support life (as we know it) may once have existed around this star.
Common Ground With Religion
Has science unwittingly given credence to age-old religious and mythological beliefs that the universe was created by a supernatural deity? It is certainly ironical that science continues to espouse a kind of religious 'blind faith' in the ability of inanimate matter to create itself from an unknown source or sources, but at the same time continues to deny the possibility of an unknown intelligent creator. The following quotes from some eminent scientists and writers sum up trends in thinking.
Gregg Easterbrook (journalist)
"If nothing else, the theological idea of creation ex nihilo - out of nothing - is looking better all the time as 'inflation' theories increasingly suggest the universe emerged from no tangible source. The word 'design,' rejected by most 20th-century scientists as a theological taboo in the context of cosmology or evolution, is even creeping back into the Big-Bang debate." [25]
H. C. Arp et al (evolutionists):
"Cosmology is unique in science in that it is a very large intellectual edifice based on very few facts" [26]
Paul Davies (Australian theoretical physicist/professor of philosophy):
"It is impossible to be a scientist, even an atheist scientist, and not be struck by the awesome beauty, harmony, and ingenuity of nature. What most impresses me is the existence of an underlying mathematical order, an order that led the astronomer Sir James Jeans to declare, 'God is a pure mathematician'." [27]
Robert Jastrow (Astronomer. Founder, NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies):
"I am an agnostic in religious matters. However, I am fascinated by strange developments going on in astronomy because of their religious implications. The essential elements in the astronomical and Biblical accounts of Genesis are the same: the chain of events leading to man commenced suddenly and sharply at a definite moment in time, in a flash of light and energy ...
"... Scientists cannot bear the thought of a natural phenomenon that cannot be explained. There is a kind of religion in science . . . that every event in the universe can be explained in a rational way as the product of some previous event. This faith is violated by the discovery that the world had a beginning under conditions in which the known laws of physics are not valid, and as a product of forces we cannot discover ... [30]
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ISBN: 1-904018-86-6
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Timeless Questions,
Shifting Answers
Crisis and Contradiction
Conflicting Indoctrination
Importance of the Debate
What is Religion?
Early Accounts of Origin
Creation Science
Common Ground with Science
What do we mean by Science?
Big-Bang Theory
Problems with Big-Bang
More Missing Pieces
Where is it all heading?
Common Ground with Religion
Impact of Modern Genetics
Problems with Evolution
Evolution, Religion & Social Science
What Next?
Why restrict Inquiry?
Is it all a futile exercise?
Modern Design Science
Wrong Assumptions
An Expendable Experiment
Recording Mechanisms - Memory
Timing Mechanisms
Memory Consolidation and Storage
Memory Retrieval
Consciousness and The Mind-Brain
Quantum Unreality
Influencing Mechanisms
The Role of Free Will
The Good-Evil Paradox
Morality and Religion
The Problem with Religion
Morality outside Religion
Chances of Intervention
False Security


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